Maps of Meaning
Noumena is the opposite of personal is as in a standard metaphysical sense – noumena: the posit object as it exists in itself outside of human existence.
Perhaps there isn’t some specific thing – perhaps human being is another state superposition. Like if there was no other life then or even why would you distinguish humans I am life would surely suffice no? I am human as opposed to what? I have a unique human experience – as opposed to what other kind of experience. In a physical sense we have several adaptations that separate we from other animals even other humans if we count mental and abstracting thought. I believe this view best helps map the human experience, helps us discern our limits and allows us to transcend them and achieve. I’m a relativist my Dudes, that holds there is objective reality however that we perceive that relative to ourselves and our biology. Understanding how we learn will help us change – that I feel can only come from behaviourism.
The nuance of Moral Judgment varies in human society, as it does in the animal kingdom. “Moral codes are species specific, so they can be difficult to compare with each other or with humans.” (Prof Berkoff) Berkoff believes moral development in animals regulates or helps regulate behaviour in social groups of animals such as wolves and primates.
In recognising moral behaviour in other species, we recognise that they are emotional and socially complex animals, like ourselves. This inevitably leads to greater compassion and empathy towards our pets, understanding that in some species moral displays of behaviour help build trust, lesson aggression, and promote proper diagnosis of behavioural problems. Reducing the use of suppressive or repressive training and modification of behaviour. Lessening further still displays of unwanted behaviour and allowing pets and people a more natural and positive environment to be in. Reducing anxiety and other stresses. Moral play encourages moral behaviour, moral behaviour is a self-limiting behaviour. This is why the term moral is important in relation to our pets and our society.
Moral Competence Theory:
Increasingly it is thought the best way to encourage cooperation with people and pets, is to approach from the concept of moral competence as opposed to dominance. Moving away from the concept of dominance. Increasingly it is understood that animals in the wild fallow a competence power hierarchy, meaning “leaders” must display moral behaviour or be challenged by the group to often deadly outcomes. So it is that a leader must reciprocate social behaviour. This reciprocal moral behaviour together with displays of power, displays such as strength and skills decide whom the group will accept as leaders. So, in terms of you and perhaps your beloved Dog or children reciprocal behaviour through playing hands on displaying strength, skill and moral judgment allowing your dog to win some and you win some games such as say tug or wrestling. stopping games when play is out of control. Moral play will help all parties learn by mutually invading each other’s space. Learning how to self-inhibit and how to play and interact with people. Displays of affection are as important.
“Psychological: Moral judgments are intrinsically motivating. Judgments about matters of fact, on the other hand— are never motivating just in themselves. Since to constitute moral knowledge a moral judgment must be made about some moral fact…” Stanford Encyclopaedia Of Philosophy (https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moral-epistemology/) “The descriptive use of “morality” is the one used by anthropologists when they report on the morality of the societies that they study. Recently, some comparative and evolutionary psychologists (Haidt 2006; Hauser 2006; De Waal 1996) have taken morality, or a close anticipation of it, to be present among groups of non-human animals: primarily, but not exclusively, other primates.” Stanford Encyclopaedia Of Philosophy. (https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/morality-definition/)
The distinction between using Operant Methods to perform tasks and teaching how to behave is important. There may be causes to restrict or limit behaviour and this may require the use of force, but also may not. Setting out boundaries at early stages is critical to long term success of an individual. If we view ourselves as despots, we can better see how we interact with ourselves and animals, given that in some instances animals are able to understand complex social behaviour. We have three possible outcomes. One being we can cooperate with each other. Two we can be Tyrants. Or Three slaves.
I mean really what is the statement “just an animal”? As though it’s not any form of life but an object and unimportant, Bee’s are rather important. Just an animal as if being human is something more than being different to something else that lives.
Reduced humans to animals (some say) – what were you before? Mineral – vegetable? Saying man is an animal is only degrading in an anthropocentric view – man (or we) are important to ourselves – we aren’t central to existence or the most important thing in it. As I know nothing is a statement of humility – so too: man is animal. In a holistic sense it is again better to view man as he is, in my opinion. The term bare life pops into mind. In political theory bare life is that which the state or states of man are to transform into a good life. With bare life formally excluded from the higher aims of man states. However, it is folly to forget or deny that if the states of man fail or fall bare life is returned. Anarchy as it were – stateless. I hope that made sense.
I feel it gives bearing and direction to the human endeavour. Ultimately, I don’t think any one thing or system can map it – perhaps an amalgam to produce a composite map. [Of Meaning].